KITE-BCI: A brain-computer interface system for functional electrical stimulation therapy


Integrating brain-computer interface (BCI) technology with functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) is an emerging strategy for upper limb motor rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite promising results, the combined use of these technologies (BCI-FEST) in clinical practice is minimal. To address this issue, we developed KITE-BCI, a BCI system specifically designed for clinical application and integration with dynamic FEST. In this paper, we report its technical features and performance. In addition, we discuss the differences in distributions of the BCI- and therapist-triggered stimulation latencies.


Two single-arm 40-session interventional studies to test the feasibility of BCI-controlled FEST for upper limb motor rehabilitation in individuals with cervical SCI


Rehabilitation programs within the University and Lyndhurst Centres of the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute - University Health Network, Toronto, Canada

Outcome Measures

We measured BCI setup duration, and to characterize the performance of KITE-BCI, we recorded BCI sensitivity, defined as the percentage of successful BCI activations out of the total number of cued movements.


The overall BCI sensitivities were 74.46% and 79.08% for the sub-acute and chronic groups, respectively. The average KITE-BCI setup duration across the two studies was 11 min and 13 s.


KITE-BCI demonstrates a clinically viable single-channel BCI system for integration with FEST resulting in a versatile technology-enhanced upper limb motor rehabilitation strategy after SCI.

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